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Preparation of research projects

With the following guidelines I do not intend to create models that adapt to the work of elaboration of the research projects that will be in the future the monographs of degree. It is our goal to illustrate and take step by step the process of developing a project, which is developed taking into account that everything is the essence of the research process and not isolate concepts or parts of it to secondary elaborations giving priority to others. The body of the project must be sequential and enjoy the process of communicating vessels that will determine the success of the project.

It is a follow-up and construction guideline that must be taken into account in order for the project to enjoy success and realization. That all the exposed in these lines is the true reflection of a work of investigation and not the simple transcription of information of a text to these pages.

I hope to contribute even a small part to the realization of your research projects.

SCHEME FOR THE PREPARATION OF A RESEARCH PROJECT

I.- THE PROBLEM.

II.-FRAME OF REFERENCE.

III.-METHODOLOGY.

IV.-ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS.

I.- THE PROBLEM.

The first thing that interests us is knowing, knowing, what will be investigated: Why, why, what is the value or importance of the fact or phenomenon to be investigated. If the research to be carried out has criteria of priority, novelty, opportunity, conformism or behavior.

Descriptive title of the project.

The title of the research to be carried out must be clear, precise and complete. It is intended to indicate where, what, how and when, clearly and succinctly indicates the place to which the data refer, the phenomenon that occurs, the variables that are interrelated, and the date to which the information refers.

B. Formulation of the problem.

What do we mean by formulating a problem? Let’s start with the following criteria: to formulate a problem is to characterize it, define it, frame it theoretically, suggest solutions to be demonstrated, establish sources of information and methods to collect and process this information. The characterization or definition of the problem leads us to grant a title, in which the most clear and denotative we indicate the elements that are essential.

The formulation of the problem is the structuring of all the research, in such a way that one of its components is part of a whole and that everything forms a body that has the logic of investigation. It is therefore necessary to synthesize the projected question to be investigated, usually through a question.

In the first place, it should be checked if the problem is susceptible to be solved by means of an investigation. You can inquire about the significance of the problem, that is, if your solution represents an important contribution to the field of studies and if it can open new paths. It is also advisable to ask: Is it a new problem or are there already works on it? In this case, are the solutions relevant? Is the problem adequately posed? What are the hypotheses intended to confirm? Are the terms sufficiently defined? Is it worth spending time and effort on your solution, even if it is provisional?

C.- Objectives of the investigation.

It presupposes the expected achievement for the answers expressed in the hypothesis. It is the purpose of the investigation. Answer the question: WHAT FOR ?, WHAT IS LOOKING FOR WITH THE INVESTIGATION ?. An objective must be written with infinitive verbs that can be evaluated, verified, refuted at a given time. There are six categories: Memory, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. It is pertinent to write one of each category but always related to what is sought to be demonstrated in the investigation.

Once the research topic has been selected, defined by the approach of the problem and the objectives established, the motivations that lead the researcher to develop the project must be indicated. For this, the following question must be answered: WHY IS IT INVESTIGATED?

Justification-

Limitations-

It is pertinent to give the problem a logical, adequate formulation, to specify its limits, its scope, for this it is necessary to take into account the following factors:

Feasibility: what is important is that the researcher must verify the possibility of obtaining data sources for the development of their study, whether they are primary or secondary.

Place or space where the investigation will take place.

Time, if the assigned one gives me the coverage of the study or I should have one in case of unforeseen events.

Financing, if I am going to implement something that amount of money I have for it or if it will only be a feasibility study.

II.- FRAME OF REFERENCE

It is important to point out in the project the close relationship between theory, the research process and reality, the environment. Research can initiate a new theory, reform an existing one or simply define more clearly existing concepts or variables.

It is the same as the frame of reference, where everything pertinent to the literature on the topic to be investigated will be condensed. It must be a detailed and concrete search where the subject and the topic of the object to be investigated have a theoretical support, which can be debated, extended, conceptualized and concluded. No investigation should be deprived of a theoretical or reference framework or framework.

It is necessary that the working group knows and manages all the theoretical levels of their work, to avoid repeating hypotheses or approaches already worked on. The review of this part of the project should be made very clear to indicate which theorist (s) is the one that will serve as a guide in its research.

These theoretical foundations will allow to present a series of concepts, which constitute a unitary body and not simply an arbitrary set of definitions, by means of which the particular phenomena studied are systematized, classified and related to each other.

Theoretical fundament

In this aspect the investigative capacity of the working group will come into play, here everything related to what has been written and researched about the object of research will be condensed. We must differentiate between consulted theorists and the background of the problem, since sometimes we confuse the two aspects. The first – the theorists – are the written statements on the subject that will be treated in your research object, and the background of the problem, are the investigations that have been done on the research object and can serve to expand or continue its purpose research, in some cases will serve to deny your research object when this happens you enter and develop postulates that later enter to form the field of negative investigations, sector still not fully exploited, because in most research works we limit ourselves to expand on concepts worked or to propose new postulates but always with a high load of complement over the researched. It is time to start a process of denial to many investigations that are on the shelves of the libraries of the different universities of the country without having contributed anything to the construction of knowledge in any of its modalities.

It is appropriate to remember that the citation of the background can be made based on dates and / or schedules of other projects, but it is essential to mention the source of the consultation.

Background of the subject.

Development of hypothesis

It is a proposition of affirmative character enunciated to respond tentatively to a problem. It is proposed in order to explain facts or phenomena that characterize or identify the object of knowledge.

First degree hypothesis: describes facts or situations of the object of knowledge, which although known by popular knowledge, may be subject to verification.

Second degree hypothesis: establish a cause – effect relationship (yes X then Y). This affirmation is demonstrated and verified by its connection with a theoretical model.

Third degree hypothesis: the presence of existing relationships between complex variables is affirmed. It suggests explanations among phenomena of greater extension.

Null hypothesis: that by which we indicate that the information to obtain in contrary to the working hypothesis.

D.- Identification of the variables.

Every hypothesis constitutes a judgment, that is, an affirmation or denial of something. However, it is a special judgment. It is really a scientific, technical or ideological judgment, as to its origin or essence. Thus, all hypotheses implicitly imply a value, a meaning, a specific solution to the problem. This is the variable, that is, the value that we give to the hypothesis. The variable becomes the solution content that we give to the research problem.

Independent variable: The truth value that is given to a hypothesis in relation to the cause, is called independent variable.

Dependent variable: We denominate this way to the hypotheses when their value of truth makes reference no longer to the cause, but to the effect.

Intervening variable: It will be one whose content refers to a factor that is no longer cause, nor effect, but it modifies the conditions of the problem investigated.

III.- METHODOLOGY

A.- Design and techniques of information gathering.

Here you should condense all the information related to how you will perform your work under study, which parameters will be used if you rely on statistical data, which will evaluate all the information REMEMBER THAT ALL INFORMATION does not always help you for your work. You must select what serves as an interview, a journal article, a comment whether it is radial, textual or otherwise.

The source should be cited as well as the people who will provide the data, remember to mention them here and in a special and detailed way in the RESOURCES either human or institutional.

B.- Population and sample.

Population or universe is any set of units or elements such as people, farms, municipalities, businesses, etc. , clearly defined for which estimates are calculated or information is sought. The units, their content and extension must be defined.

When it is impossible to obtain data from the entire universe, it is convenient to extract a sample, a subset of the universe, that is representative. The project must specify the size and type of sampling to be used: stratified, simple random, conglomerate, proportional, multi-stage, systematic, etc.

C.- Analysis techniques.

In order to define the analysis techniques, a tentative plan or project of the different correlations should be prepared, based on the general and working hypotheses, specifying:

Coding and tabulation system.

It will be the statistical techniques to evaluate the quality of the data. Check the hypotheses or obtain conclusions.

D.- Analytical tentative index of the project.

It is advisable to develop a tentative analytical index that gives an overview of the parts or chapters that will contain the work to be done.

E.- Field work guide.

In some research projects it is necessary to present a field work guide, for its preparation you can follow the following steps:

IV.- ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS.

In this section, the administrative aspects of the project must be located, this stage has a greater importance for those projects that are presented to obtain financing, total or partial.

A.- Human resources.

Relate the people who will participate: advisors, data collection team, etc., specifying the professional qualification and its function in the investigation.

B.- Budget.

A table must be presented with the project costs indicating the different sources, if any, and discriminating the amount of each sector and the investigation.

Present a financial schedule that covers all the development of the project.

C.- Chronogram.

It is a work plan or activity plan, which shows the duration of the investigative process. The type of Schedule recommended to present the plan of activities that guide a research work is that of GANTT. The activities indicated here are not definitive. The specification of the activities depends on the type of study that is desired.